Blue & John Crow Mountains

Natural Heritage

The Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park (BJCMNP) is located in the eastern end of the island of Jamaica. It extends over a planimetric area of 486 km2 (48,600ha) and represents 4.4% of Jamaica’s land surface. When topography is taken into consideration, the area is 78,212 hectares (193,292 acres) which indicates just how mountainous the terrain is.

Map of Jamaica showing BJCMNP boundary
Map of Jamaica showing BJCMNP boundary

The mountains of the Park dominate the skyline of eastern Jamaica, and incorporate much of the interior of the parishes of Portland, St. Thomas, St. Andrew and a small section of south-east St. Mary. The steep mountain slopes form the upper sections of ten (10) of the island’s twenty-six (26) watershed management units. The highest point in the island – Blue Mountain Peak (2,256 meters) is located in the southern region of the Park. The BJCMNP is actually composed of three mountain ranges – the Port Royal, Blue, and John Crow Mountains, divided by the Buff Bay and Rio Grande Valleys on the north side of the ranges.

Satellite imagery showing the three mountain ranges within the BJCMNP
Diagram showing elevation in the three mountain ranges

The BJCMNP contains the largest continuous tract of closed broad-leaf or natural forest in Jamaica. Its upper and lower montane rain-forests are recognized globally for their high biological diversity and threatened status. The core, Preservation Zone of the Park consists of closed primary forest with broadleaf trees and makes up just over half of the area of the National Park. The remainder comprises mainly degraded forest and some old Caribbean Pine plantations in addition to lands leased for Blue Mountain Coffee mainly in the Port Royal Mountains. These lands form the Recovery and Sustainable Use Zones. Outside these areas, a 1 km-wide band is considered the Buffer Zone, in which Park management works with the rural communities to promote environmentally sustainable livelihoods and sustained, appropriate management of the area’s natural and cultural resources.

Natural forests comprise a wide variety of trees and other plants

Over half the flowering plants in the BJCMNP are endemic to Jamaica (found naturally only in Jamaica) and about one third are endemic to the BJCM area. At least 40% of the higher plants (flowering and non-flowering are endemic to Jamaica. The forest is made up of large trees such as Juniper Cedar (Juniperus lucayana), Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus elatus) and Soapwood (Clethra occidentalis) and smaller shrubs such as Hot-lips (Cephaelis elata) and Jamaican Rose (Blakea trinervia). To capture sunlight in the thick forest, many plants climb up the trees, like Climbing Bamboo (Chusquea altifolia) whilst others spend all their lives on the branches of trees, like orchids and bromeliads. “Old Man’s Beard” is an unusual kind of bromeliad that hangs down from the branches of many of the trees in the National Park (look for an amazing photograph of this under the Holywell section).

Bromeliads, sometimes called “Wild Pine” on tree branches
Bromeliads, sometimes called “Wild Pine” on tree branches

Ferns and other plants that like a lot of water are common in the Blue and John Crow Mountains including tree ferns. This is an ancient type of plant, believed to have been around since the Age of the Dinosaurs.

Tree Ferns at Mt. Horeb near Holywell
Tree Ferns at Mt. Horeb near Holywell

Habitat for Wildlife

For most Jamaican land animals, the BJCMNP is their last refuge - a large area of natural forest where they are protected from human disturbance.

The BJCMNP is the last of two known habitats of the Giant Swallowtail Butterfly (Pterourus/Papilio homerus) – the largest butterfly in the Western Hemisphere. The Cockpit Country is the other location but the population there is much smaller than the BJCM population. In addition, National Park Rangers located another BM population a few years ago that has not yet been studied by scientists. Members of the Bowden Pen Farmers’ Association who work closely with the BJCMNP have a tree nursery where they grow amongst other things, the Water Mahoe (Hernandia catalpifolia) which is the only plant the Homerus butterfly caterpillars will eat. The seedlings have been used to reforest several degraded areas, and this has likely contributed to the increasing numbers of the butterflies seen in the area.

Giant Swallowtail Butterfly
Giant Swallowtail Butterfly

The BJCMNP is an important habitat for many Jamaican birds, including all the endemic species such as the endangered Jamaican Blackbird (Nesopsar nigerrimus). The Jamaican Blackbird is often confused with other much more common black birds in Jamaica such as the Greater Antillean Grackle or Cling Cling (Quiscalus niger) and the Jamaican Crow (Corvus jamaicensis) – which are both much noisier and larger than the Jamaican Blackbird. The Holywell area is a good bird-watching spot, particularly for this relatively rare bird. Also, you are likely to hear the call of the Rufous-throated Solitaire (Myadestes genibarbis) and see the Mountain Witch (Geotrygon versicolor). You may catch a glimpse of the Jamaican Tody or Robin Redbreast (Todus todus). The BJCMNP is an important winter habitat for many migratory birds including the Swainson’s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii).

Jamaican Tody
Jamaican Tody

Many other animals make their home within and around the BJCMNP including four of Jamaica’s six endemic snakes. All are non-poisonous including the largest and most impressive of them – the Jamaican Boa (Epicrates subflavus).

Jamaican Boa
Jamaican Boa

Jamaica has 23 species of native frogs, all of which are endemic to the island. Frogs are the only amphibians native to Jamaica and they are distributed in two major centres across the island – the Cockpit Country and the Blue and John Crow Mountains. The BJCMNP supports 11 of the 23 endemic frogs, five of which are endemic to the National Park.

Ecosystem Services - Forests provide important services for people

Climate Change Mitigation – Forests mitigate against climate change because of the trees and other plants which absorb and sequester carbon dioxide helping to reduce global warming. In addition, forests produce oxygen and help to cleanse the air.

Soil conservation – Forests help reduce soil erosion including landslides which can damage roads and other infrastructure. Natural forests are better at reducing soil erosion than plantations. The National Forest Management and Conservation Plan (2001) of the Forestry Department (FD) recommends that in forest reserves, natural forests (closed broadleaf) should be preserved for biodiversity conservation and no timber should be harvested. And further that disturbed forests on steep slopes and shallow soils should retain forest cover for protection.

Landslide in the Rio Grande Valley
Landslide in the Rio Grande Valley

Water Supply – the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park supplies over 40% of the population of Jamaica with domestic water, in addition to water for agricultural, industrial and commercial usage.

Waterfall at Cascade
Waterfall at Cascade

Recreational Opportunities

See "Blue Mountains Sustainable Tourism"

Agricultural, Horticultural and Pharmaceutical Products

There are a wide variety of plants within the BJCM which may be of use for pharmaceutical or other purposes. Certainly, the Maroons and many people from other communities around the National Park use plants for medicinal and other purposes e.g. craft.

BJCMNP | The Blue Mountains Experience

The JCDT appreciates the involvement and support of our Partners, Donors and Sponsors

  • National Environment & Planning Agency
  • Forestry Department
  • Jamaica National Heritage Trust
  • Environmental Foundation of Jamaica
  • Forest Conservation Fund
  • Pear Tree Press
  • Reclamation
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